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Weekly #8 Five China stories you need to read: “Profanity discussion class”; Hidden giant of lower-tier market; Drop of divorce rate
"Sometimes, we all need to use swear words. It's kind of thrilling, like drinking a cup of iced milk tea – you suddenly feel refreshed."
The weekly "Five China Stories You Need to Read" is back! These days, I'm a little overwhelmed because I'm working on a new project about China, which you can expect to receive soon in your email. I hope you'll like it.
In Shenzhen, a Chinese language teacher has introduced a unique "profanity discussion class" as part of the school's gender education framework. By guiding students to explore the true meanings behind profanity, they engage in discussions on gender-related issues. Today's five stories also include the decline in China's divorce rate, the presence of milk tea chains in China's lower-tiered market, Tianjin grandpas' bridge diving, and more.
1)What happened in a "profanity discussion class" at an international middle school, and how do students and parents feel about it?
2)What is the reason behind the continuous decline in China's divorce rate over the past years?
3)A group of Tianjin grandpas who enjoyed bridge diving as their routine suddenly go viral.
4)How does a lesser-known milk tea chain become a giant of the lower-tiered market?
5)A middle-class mother who went to Hong Kong for postgraduate studies to help her child escape the rat race in the Chinese mainland.
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1. Why did I decide to teach a "profanity discussion class"? 我为什么要开一堂脏话课？
Overview: At an international school in Shenzhen, Chinese language teacher Feng Junhe and his colleagues introduced a distinctive "profanity discussion class" for middle school students. This class delved into the societal implications and taboos surrounding swear words and their connection to gender bias. In fact, the profanity class is part of the school's broader gender education initiative, which is aimed to address a notable gap in China's education system.
The article explores Feng and his colleagues' journey of challenging gendered roles and empowering female students through innovative curriculum. It comes from 每日人物 [Daily Person], a WeChat blog that focuses on stories of individuals involved in social hot topics and is committed to convey humanistic care through investigative journalism.
When designing the course, the first thing that came to mind was to conduct a survey. Before discussion with the class, students wrote down a number on the scale from one to ten to represent the extent for frequency in response to each question. In this way, we hoped that students would be more candid when discussing swear words in the upcoming sessions. The questionnaire consisted of 8 questions, mainly focusing on topics such as swear words in daily life, on the internet, what people around them say, and how they themselves use such language.
In response to the fourth question, "How often do you use swear words online?", students exhibited stronger resonance, and the numbers written down tended to be higher on the scale. One student shared their perspective, saying, "I can understand this distinction. If you say swear words in real life and get heard by your teachers or parents, you'll be educated. But there are no consequences like that on the internet." Some students also mentioned, "Sometimes, we all need to use swear words. It's kind of thrilling, like drinking a cup of iced milk tea – you suddenly feel refreshed."
在最后一个问题上，同学们的反应让我印象最深刻。我们问的是「你说脏话时，知道那些脏话实际所指的意思吗？」当时学生们展露出隐藏、张扬，以及刻意的从容和冷淡。我还是惊讶于结果：⼤部分⼈都是知道的，⼀半的⼈选择了 8 或者 9。
The most impressive moment for me came in the students' responses to the last question. When asked, "When you use swear words, do you know the actual meanings of those words?", the class revealed a spectrum of reactions, including concealment, assertiveness, calculated indifference, and detachment. I was taken aback by the results; the majority of students did know, with half of them writting down 8 or 9 on the scale。
In our education system, there is very little relevant education about sex and gender. If it doesn't come up in the classroom, students don't consider it a topic for discussion between teachers and students. Many students, when faced with related issues or experiences in the future, may not know how to handle them, and they may keep these issues to themselves.
This is a significant gap in our education system. Nonetheless, knowledge about sex and gender still needs to be guided and taught in a reasonable and systematic way, rather than being avoided or discussed with discomfort. In fact, the profanity class itself is a part of our annual gender education.
Starting from International Women's Day in 2020, we began designing themed lessons on gender-related topics that lasted for two weeks or even a month. The profanity discussion class was part of that initiative.
Also, the expression of swear words is closely related to gender and gender discrimination. In the class, we discussed several questions regarding swear words:
Why do so many swear words revolve around women?
Why are so many swear words connected to reproductive organs?
Why do so many swear words attack older individuals in one's family?
Facing these questions, the understanding of male and female students was vastly different.
In the class, one male student explained that attacking a woman or someone's mother was merely attacking the person themselves.
At the same time, another female student stood up and said, "In today's society, many people can accept men using swear words, but they can't accept women using them. My mom always tells me that a girl shouldn't use swear words. Why? Because in their eyes, guys can be rude, while girls must be gentle. This is so unfair."
After the profanity class, one of the most moving moments was when a mother sent me a message. The lady was deeply touched that we could discuss this topic in class.
She had a long-standing conflict with her son, who used to swear at her when he came home. However, after the class, her son talked to her about the class and some new insights into swear words.
After listening to her son, the mother was very moved and took the opportunity to tell him, "You know, when you used swear words, I felt really hurt. Because to you, swear words might just be casual language, a way to communicate with your friends. But as a woman and a mother, those words are very hurtful to me, a different kind of harm to me."
At that moment, her son didn't say anything, but afterward, he never swore at his mother again.
Comments: Just as our thoughts find expression through language, language, in turn, shapes our thinking. For this reason, some educators believe the "profanity discussion class" is a prime example of effective gender education. By allowing students to independently explore the meanings behind swear words and reflect on their acceptance of gender biases, students directly experience gender stereotypes and how they are perpetuated through language.
It's worth noting that these open and candid discussions take place in one of China's most expensive private schools (with an annual tuition of USD 41,000). In many more typical public schools across China, sex education is still limited to lectures on the physiological differences between males and females and on physiological health.
2. The hidden giant of the lower-tier market: more stores than McDonald's, but lesser-known 下沉市场的隐形巨兽：门店多过麦当劳，却没几个人知道
Overview: Tianlala (甜啦啦 tián lā lā), a six-year-old milk tea chain with over 6,000 stores, has adopted a growth strategy similar to that of China's milk tea giant, Mixue Icecream & Tea (蜜雪冰城；mì xuě bīng chéng), even absorbing franchisees who were ousted by Mixue. Tianlala has penetrated deeper into the market with lower prices, carving out a niche in the highly competitive tea beverage industry.
The article comes from 半熟财经 [Half-Cooked Finance], a WeChat blog targeting a young readership under Caijing Magazine, a renowned financial publication in China that covers societal, political, and economic issues.
Looking at Tianlala’s development history and business model, there's always been a lingering presence behind its mysterious veil – Mixue Ice Cream & Tea. It has closely followed Mixue's footsteps, delved even deeper into the market, and replicated Mixue's expansion path. It has even "welcomed" many franchisees who were rejected by Mixue. Industry insiders mention that a significant portion of those who franchise with Tianlala are franchisees who couldn't meet Mixue's franchise criteria and opted for Tianlala as a "Plan B."
Now, Tianlala decides to step out from the shadow of Mixue. While unveiling its plans to go public, the company has also disclosed its aspiration to expand to first and second-tier cities and venture into international markets. For this "invisible giant"，the moment of revelation signals the true commencement of its challenges."
"It’s too difficult to open a Mixue milk tea store now," said someone from China's Henan province who had considered franchising with Mixue, expressing her frustration on social media. After completing her training at one of Mixue’s headquarters, she spent over a month looking for a suitable location. After investigating every place in Henan’s Kaifeng City and Zhoukou City, she submitted a total of eight potential store locations, but only one passed the initial screening, which still got rejected in the final review. In the end, she gave up on her original plan and instead discussed with her family about opening a Tianlala store.
"Due to the limited purchase power in third and fourth-tier cities, there's no way to open many higher-priced milk tea stores like ChaPanda, Shuyi Tealicious, or Goodme. Given Mixue’s strict franchise criteria, Tianlala became the best choice for a milk tea brand priced below 10 yuan." says Li Jiang, the founder of New Drive Catering, told us.
[Note: ChaPanda, Shuyi Tealicious and Goodme are Chinese milk tea brands with similar unit price, ChaPanda's unit price is around 16 yuan to 18 yuan, while Mixue’s unit price is about 8 yuan.]
Zheng Zhong, a partner at Maixing Investment, also believes that Tianlala is targeting a market in smaller towns than Mixue's target demographic. Even within Tianlala's home province of Anhui, the city with the most Tianlala stores isn't the provincial capital, Hefei, but rather Fuyang. Similarly, in Meixue's home province of Henan, cities with lower purchasing power, such as Nanyang, Pingdingshan, and Zhoukou, have more Tianlala stores than Zhengzhou, the provincial capital. Zheng Zhong refers to Tianlala as the "localized Meixue" targeting these less-developed cities.
[Notes: Fuyang, a city in Anhui province, has a GDP that is only about a quarter of that of the provincial capital, Hefei in 2022.]
This year, a 30-year-old known as Han runs a Tianlala in a county in Heilongjiang province. Previously from the new media industry in Beijing, Han decided at the end of 2021 to return to her hometown and start her own business. That was when Tianlala jumped into her view. Han noticed that there were shops in farms and counties near her hometown in Heilongjiang.
What particularly appealed to Han and her husband about Tianlala was the lower price of each order, which they believed would be more suitable for the local county's consumers.
Han told us that the average local salary was around 2,000 yuan (about USD 274), and housing prices were approximately 5,000 yuan (about USD 684) per square meter. When it came to milk tea consumption, local residents are well aware that chain brands were their preferred choice, and they seldom visit non-franchise stores, which tend to be more expensive.
"At the time, we chose Tianlala because we thought it was an emerging brand with a certain market presence in Heilongjiang but not so ubiquitous as Mixue," Han mentioned. In comparison to Mixue, she also noted that the franchise costs for Tianlala were lower. After attending Tianlala's franchise meeting, they learned that they could open a Tianlala store with an investment of around 130,000 yuan (about USD 17,795). In contrast, opening a Mixue store would require at least over 400,000 yuan (about USD 54,756).
However, in the actual process of setting up the Tianlala store, Han's startup costs reached around 300,000 yuan (USD 41,067). The store's design was standardized by the company, and the company handled the decoration and equipment procurement. Finally, the breakdown of expenses included 45,000 yuan (USD 6,160) for rent, 89,000 yuan (USD 12,183) for renovations, and equipment costs totaling 94,000 yuan (USD 12,868).
The beverage industry is one of the most competitive sectors in China's entrepreneurial landscape, where the scale and quantity of stores remain some of the most effective indicators of brand prowess. After establishing over 6,000 stores, Tianlala has clear roadmap for its future development: further solidifying its foothold in lower-tier markets and venturing into international territory. By the end of August, they successfully launched their inaugural overseas store in Indonesia.
Wang Wei, Tianlala's Chairman, stated at a partner conference that another six company-owned stores in Indonesia are currently under construction, with expectations of having 60 stores established in Indonesia by the year's end. He also mentioned that, conservatively estimating, Tianlala planned to open 500 stores in Southeast Asia by 2024 and then venture into North America, Europe, the Middle East, and other regions in 2025.
"Venturing abroad presents a mix of opportunities and challenges, which is a necessary stage in the development of the brand and a vital step toward realizing our 10,000-store plan." Wang said at the meeting.
Comments: Tianlala's low prices help the brand take over the market, but the cheapness has also limited the brand's profitability. In addition, other brands can also use similar development models to grab Tianlala's market. But do consumers really care about that? I guess as long as the flavor is good, nobody will refuse an cost-effective option, especially at the current macro-economic situation.
3. China's divorce number has dropped for three consecutive years, why is that? 离婚人数连续三年下降，为什么？
Overview: China's number of divorces has dropped continuously for three years. At a macro level, couples have become more prudent under the economic downward pressure when it comes to marital property division and divorce decision making.
Although an increasing number of women have possessed stronger economic muscle and firmer resolution to leave a marriage, some couples will eventually hold back in consideration of conjugal affection, child-rearing, property, etc. The article probes into both objective conditions and spouses' change of mind that have caused China's divorce rate to fall back after decades of rise.
This article comes from 财经杂志 [i-caijing], the WeChat blog of magazine Caijing, which closely tracks major political and economic issues of China.
As China's economy grows fast, the wealth of Chinese households increases. However, increasing income does not bring more stability to marriages. China's crude divorce rate stood at 0.3 per thousand in 1979 and progressed to 0.7 per thousand in 1990. It grew steadily before starting to speed up in 2000. The year 2019 witnessed a peak of 3.4 per thousand, an eleven-fold increase in 30 years. Nevertheless, the figure has shown signs of dropping in the past three years.
(All figures shown above are crude rates. The chart is compiled from previous statistical communiques on the development of civil affairs undertakings by Caijing journalists)
There are two ways to get divorced in China: by registry or by litigation. Seen from statistics, the former is the preferred choice of the majority, taking up as much as 85 percent in recent years.
On the declining divorce number, researchers in the fields of ecomomics and social studies told Caijing magazine that marriage exhibits a certain cyclical pattern in sync with economic conditions. In other words, divorce rates tend to correlate with socio-economic fluctuations and overall economic development. When the economy faces heightened downward pressures, the divorce rate is likely to fall.
Furthermore, in recent years, the decline in the number of divorce registration in China may also have a connection several factors, such as the decreased population at ideal marriage age, growing number of people refusing marriage, and the implementation of 30-day "cooling-off" period for divorce, which took effect on Jan 1, 2021. Some had previously argued that insufficient legal restrictions on divorce proceedings would cause people to make impulsive decisions, thus driving up the divorce rate.
No data has been released yet measuring the effects of divorce cooling-off period. On April 20, 2023, some Internet users left comments on the official website of Ministry of Civil Affairs, inquiring about the number of couples who refrained from divorcing due to this practice and how many couples would still proceed with divorce after 30 days. In response, the ministry stated that these specific indicators have not yet been included in China's statistical system of civil affairs.
Senior divorce lawyer Liu Shengfei observed that it has been harder to end a marriage in recent years. Couples applying for registry divorce through civil affairs departments are hampered by the mandatory cooling-off period, and those who litigate can hardly receive approval from the judge during the initial lawsuit if their partners firmly disagree.
Facing clients' divorce appeals, Liu is not in a hurry to undertake the cases. Instead, he begins by getting cross the risks and challenges and then leave them to make informed decision. He emphasizes that obtaining a divorce through the initial lawsuit is typically difficult and also highlights the potential complications and lengthy process involved in dividing marital assets.
The couples may give divorce a second thought as life uncertainties increase. When housing prices used to be stable or bullish, there tended to be fewer divergences as regard to who keeps the house and who offers cash compensation by share, explained Liu. "They would quickly make up their minds to divorce, but now, when the prices are volatile and therefore houses hard to sell and property hard to divide up, reaching a resolution is not an easy task." Many cases this year that Liu has handled are still left unsettled.
Comments: In addition to factors mentioned in the article, the number of divorces has dropped also because fewer people are getting married. China had only 6.83 million marriage registrations in 2022, the lowest in 37 years.
The drifting figures of both marriage and divorce reflect that Chinese younger generation is changing their views about relationship and family. Those powerful, financially independent female figures on social media or in TV series and films also show women the multiple possibilities of living, with or without marriage, which is a trend common in China and many other countries.
4. Shizilin Bridge, Diving Grandpas, and the Glory of Life 狮子林桥，跳水大爷，人生的荣光
Overview: In Tianjin, a northern Chinese city, a lively group of seniors has caught the public's attention this summer. Dubbed the "Tianjin diving grandpas," these elderly gentlemen, clad in swimwear, transform a local bridge into a performance arena, enchanting both residents and tourists with their remarkable aquatic stunts.
And also expectedly, after going viral on social media for nearly a month, the diving grandpa team in Tianjin announced that they would halt their diving due to safety concerns. Anyways, they once shone brightly in their unique moment of glory.
This article comes from 人物 [People], a magazine delving into topics that may not be mainstream but carry significance, providing in-depth analysis of individuals through thorough interviews
At Shizilin Bridge, there is a near-standardized "shift" timetable: from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m., there are people diving and swimming under the bridge. At 10 a.m., the morning diving shift begins. Starting at 3 p.m., a second wave of divers takes over, going on until the sun sets.
This timetable is optimized for the routines of the "winter swimming grandpas" and the "diving grandpas". They rise up early in the morning, take a short dive before rushing back home to pick up groceries and prepare meals. After a noonday nap, they return to the bridge and play until the water cools down - when it is almost dark too. They then make their way back before dinner.
在人群开始围观之后，苏长海有意识地穿上了两层泳裤。他人高且瘦，除去了衣服，几乎能数得清肋骨。在桥下换完衣服后，他再次走向人群。只要有人群、有镜头，苏长海就是快乐的跳水「老镰刀」。他在人群前起舞，随时随地劈叉，或者高声为队友喊出他的串场词，「站在跳台上面的是来自狮子林桥的跳台高手，熊猫警长夏长胜，他为大家展示的是抱膝，Здравствуйте, Ленин! 熊猫警长你成功了，看你的表演就是艺术的享受！」说完，还要夸张地向两边的观众鞠躬、敬礼示意。
Once the crowd started to gather, Su Changhai consciously put on two layers of swim trunks (to prevent them from being washed away by the water flow). Su was tall and thin, and with his clothes off, you could almost count his ribs. After changing under the bridge, he walked back towards the crowd. Anytime there was a crowd and cameras, Su Changhai was the joyful diving "old sickle" (his nickname).
Su danced in front of the crowd, split wherever and whenever, or loudly cheered on his teammates, "Standing on the diving platform is the diving master of Shizilin Bridge, Chief Panda Officer Xia Changsheng. He is showcasing the "tuck" [Note] , Здравствуйте, Ленин! Chief Panda Officer, you nailed it! Watching your performance is enjoying pure art!" After saying this, he would exaggerate his bows and salute to the audience on both sides.
Note: In a tuck position, the diver pulls their knees up toward their chest and wraps their arms around their shins or thighs, creating a tight ball shape.
The meaning of "Здравствуйте, Ленин!" is "Hello, Comrade Lenin" and it has no relevance to his context. He shouted this because it was one of the few phrases he knew in foreign languages. The rest were in Mongolian.
He finally stood on the edge of the bridge, with the Haihe River seven meters below. He pointed to different parts of his body while loudly saying, "Allow me to offer you all a delicious dish - grilled squid with coarse salt, cumin, Sichuan pepper powder, and MSG (monosodium glutamate)!"
旁边和他相熟的跳水大爷在起哄声中继续补充，「臭豆腐！」 A fellow diver who knew him well continued to chime in amidst the clamor, "Stinky tofu!"
Note: 臭豆腐 stinky tofu is a popular fermented tofu snack in some Chinese cultures.
"Yes, stinky tofuuu—!" Su Changhai drew out the last word, imitating the "squid" on the iron plate in a horizontal position, then kicked off from the riverbank and plunged into the water.
The praised "Chief Panda Officer" Xia Changsheng was now standing on a platform outside the bridge, shaking hands with the crowd through the railing. He seemed unfazed, as if he had grown used to this introduction, naturally taking the lead and interacting with the audience.
After Shizilin Bridge attracted a large crowd of audience, most of the "diving grandpas" who used to dive leisurely started diving extra hours to entertain the spectators. Diving once a day became the norm. Su Changhai used to visit Shizilin Bridge three times a week; now, he comes twice a day, in the morning and afternoon. In one video, a "diving grandpa" loudly tells the camera, "As long as you all stay, I'll dive for you until 12:30!"
The folks who swim and dive here throughout the year have naturally formed the Shizilin Bridge Diving Team. At its peak, there were over 100 team members, and now it's around 80. It's like a community of acquaintances that spontaneously follows its own traditions. Most of them have known each other for a decade or even longer. Those who arrive first will held the parking spaces for others, just like saving seats for close friends during school days. When they come, they first greet the people around them, then find their two or three closest buddies to warm up together before getting into the water. Under the bridge, there's a colorful tent set up by the diving team where people can change their clothes.
Comments: I'm sure many of you have seen short videos of bridge diving on social media. The Tianjing Grandpa's bridge diving perhaps represents a more beginner-friendly and elderly-friendly version. Long live the grandpas! It's a pity that they have had to halt their diving, but safety concerns should always be the top priority. Hopefully, they will find a safer place to continue their show!
5. Middle-class mother who went to Hong Kong for postgraduate studies: Pushing herself to the limit to help her child escape the rat race of the Gaokao 去香港读研的中产妈妈：通过鸡自己，帮孩子摆脱高考内卷
Overview: In the #5 episode of GRR's Weekly Roundup, we talked about Hong Kong's scramble for mainland elites. In fact, this is a two-way choice. In today's story, a middle-class mother went to Hong Kong for further study, just to help her child escape the rat race in the Chinese mainland, and also, help herself embrace a wider world - she admitted that Hong Kong was friendly to mid-career professionals.
This article is from youth36kr 后浪研究所, a WeChat blog focusing on young people under 36氪 [36kr], an pioneering platform serving participants in China's new economy.
香港作为一座国际化都市，护照免签168个国家和地区，个税上限17%，特别是优质教育和医疗福利，完美契合内地中产家庭的需求。而且，北京直飞香港只要3个半小时，语言和生活习惯也更容易接受。 Hong Kong is an international city that provides visa-free access to 168 countries and regions, with a maximum personal income tax rate of 17 percent. Notably, it offers high-quality education and healthcare benefits that align perfectly with the needs of middle-class families from the Chinese mainland. Moreover, with a direct flight from Beijing to Hong Kong taking only 3 and a half hours, the language and lifestyle is also more easily adaptable.
I personally persevered through the pressure of the gaokao (college entrance examination) and worked hard for many years until I finally had the capital to settle down. While I don't insist that my daughter must surpass me in the future, if she ends up following the same path as me, wouldn't my over 20 years in Beijing have been in vain?
[Note: The National College Entrance Examination (NCEE), commonly known as the gaokao (高考; gāokǎo; "Higher Education Exam"), is a standardized college entrance exam held annually in the Chinese mainland.]
When it comes to the benefits of Hong Kong identity, many parents' initial impression is that it allows their children to gain admission of the top eight universities in Hongkong and 985/211 universities in the Chinese mainland with lower scores. Intermediaries have also sensed a business opportunity and claim that, for a sum of RMB thirty to fifty thousand, they can arrange for affiliation with a Hong Kong company and secure a 7-year work visa. With the hype on the internet, it gives the impression that obtaining Hong Kong permanent residency is simple, while overlooking the potential risks in the process. In reality, the path to obtaining a Hong Kong permanent residency in seven years is fraught with risks, and each step must be carefully calculated.
[Note: Project 985 is a constructive project for founding world-class universities in the 21st century conducted by the government of the People’s Republic of China. Project 211 is the Chinese government's new endeavor aimed at strengthening about 100 institutions of higher education and key disciplinary areas as a national priority for the 21st century. There are 112 universities in the project 211.]
今年5月，我回了趟北京，曾经和我一样苦恼没有北京户口、对未来迷茫的父母，他们知道我去了香港之后，都来联系我。我知道他们其中也有人考虑过这条路，但是真正迈出第一步的人，还是挺少的。每个家庭情况不一样，我也非常理解他们的顾虑。 In May of this year, I made a trip back to Beijing. Parents who, like me, had experienced the same anxieties about not having Beijing hukou and uncertainties about the future, reached out to me upon learning about my move to Hong Kong. I know that some of them had also considered this path, but there were still very few who actually took the first step. Every family has a different situation, and I completely understand their concerns.
[Note: Hukou (Chinese: 户口; lit. 'household individual') is a system of household registration used in the Chinese mainland.]
(I used to) lack the courage to leave behind all the connections, resources, and fixed assets I had accumulated in Beijing and start from scratch in a different city.
Now, when I reconsider this issue, I realize there is a trade-off in everything you do. Although my family and I don't have deep roots in Hong Kong, my years of work experience and personal abilities, along with the accumulation of my entire family, are the trump cards that embolden me to start anew.
For Hong Kong, the reputation of mainland Internet giants still shines brightly, and the future integration between the two regions will only deepen. With 15 years of work experience and education, I may gain more resources and opportunities. What's most important is that Hong Kong is friendly to mid-career professionals. When I inadvertently express anxiety about my age, people around me even ask me, "Why are you so concerned about your age? Being 40 represents greater value," which makes me more confident about returning to the workplace.
未来的结果是好是坏，我现在也不敢保证。唯一可以确定的是，在确定了家庭布局大方向后，中间不会设定太多的条条框框，去影响我前进的脚步。在不断调整、纠错的过程中，我会向着最终目标努力靠近。 I can't guarantee whether the future will be better or worse, but one thing I am sure of is that, after determining the overall direction of my family plan, I won't set too many rigid constraints in the middle to hinder my progress. In the process of continuous adjustment and correction, I will strive to get closer to the ultimate goal.
Comments: The appeal of Hong Kong as a global city is undeniable, thanks to its unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures and tangible advantages such as favorable tax rates and international accessibility. While some individuals have opted to leave the city, others are contemplating the idea of relocating in recent years. However, migrating and starting afresh is never a simple decision, no matter the chosen destination.